Australia’s economic growth is slowing.

Employment and Participation rates are falling.

Australia Employment & Participation Rates

Wage rate growth is slowing.

Australia Wage Rates

Slowing wage rate growth and inflation confirm that the economy is faltering.

Australia Underlying Inflation

The RBA, with one eye on the housing bubble, has indicated its reluctance to cut rates further. Increased infrastructure spending by Federal and State governments seems the only viable alternative.

With the motor industry winding down and apartment construction headed for a cliff, this is becoming increasingly urgent.

US Job Growth, Wage Rates & Inflation

Payrolls jumped by a seasonally adjusted 235,000 jobs in February, setting the Fed on track for another rate rise next week.

US Job Growth

GDP growth is projected to lift in line with employment, wage rates and hours worked. At this stage, the Fed is still attempting to normalize interest rates rather than slow the economy to cool inflationary pressures.

Projected GDP

Wage rate growth remains muted, at close to 2.5 percent, so rate hikes are likely to proceed at a gradual pace.

Hourly Wage Rates and Money Supply

The need to tighten monetary policy is only likely to be seriously considered when wage rate growth [light green] exceeds 3.0 percent [dark green line]. Then you are likely to witness a dip in money supply growth [blue], as in 2000 and 2006, with bearish consequences for stocks.

*The dip in 2010 was a mistake by the Fed, taking its foot off the gas pedal too soon after the 2008 crash.

The Threat of Inflation

From the Trading Diary:

I received a message from a US reader suggesting I should “stay out of politics”.

I would love to stay out of politics. Frankly, I find it tiresome. Unfortunately, politics and the economy are so intertwined as to make the study of one meaningless without consideration of the other. I say “unfortunately” because a lot of the damage done to the economy is caused by the political system.

As for Donald Trump, I am a conservative but do not support him. He is not another Reagan who can lead from the center and inspire his country. If anything he is a polarizing force, more ego-driven than Nixon and just as unpredictable.

I hope I am wrong. Trump has many sound policies and has made some solid appointments to his team. Don’t believe everything you read from a hostile media. They could do a lot of good. Provided they are able to manage the elephant in the lifeboat — the destabilizing side of Trump’s nature.

Now that I have offended at least half of all US readers — slightly less than half if you listen to bleating about the majority vote — let me explain why politics and economics are so intertwined.

Apart from trade wars, which I will discuss at a later date, I see the main threat to the US economy as inflation.

Before I start, let me say that these dangers are not immediate and the present boom is likely to continue for the next 12 to 18 months. But they could quickly materialize, bringing the boom to a premature end, so it is best to keep a weather eye on them.


Earlier this week I discussed why the inflation outlook is so important to stock market performance:

From Tim Wallace at The Sydney Morning Herald:

Nine years on from the start of the financial crisis, the US recovery may be overheating, Legal & General Investment Management economist James Carrick has warned.

He has predicted a series of interest rate hikes will tip the US into a 2018 recession.”Every recession in the US has been caused by a tightening of credit conditions,” he said, noting inflation is on the rise and the US Federal Reserve is discussing plans for higher interest rates.

Officials at the Fed have only raised interest rates cautiously, because inflation has not taken off, so they do not believe the Fed needs to take the heat out of the economy.

But economists fear the strong dollar and low global commodity prices have restricted inflation and disguised domestic price rises. Underneath this, they fear the economy is already overheating.

As a result, they expect inflation to pick up sharply this year, forcing more rapid interest rate hikes.

That could cause a recession next year, they say. In their models, the signals are that this could take place in mid-2018.

Harvard scholar Paul Schmelzing points out that inflation is starting to rear its head in both China and Germany, with producer prices rising. This may in part be a result of the falling value of the Yuan and Euro against the Dollar, resulting in higher domestic commodity prices.

The opposite, however, is true for the US, with a rising Dollar lowering import prices and acting as a headwind against inflation.

The consumer price index (CPI) is rising because of higher crude oil prices but core CPI (excluding food & energy) has remained fairly constant, around the 2.0 percent target, over the last five years.

Core CPI and CPI

So why the concern?

Well the Fed is more concerned about underlying inflation, best reflected by hourly wage rates, than the headline CPI figure.

A sharp rise in hourly earnings rates would force the Fed to respond with tighter monetary policy to take the heat out of the economy.

The chart below shows how the Fed slams on the brakes whenever average hourly earning rates grow above 3.0 percent. Each surge in hourly earnings is matched by a dip in the currency growth rate as the Fed tightens the supply of money to slow the economy and reduce inflationary pressure. And tighter monetary normally leads to recession.

Hourly Earnings Growth compared to Currency in Circulation

Two anomalies on the above chart warrant explanation. First, is the sharp upward spike in currency growth in 1999/2000 when the Fed reacted to the LTCM crisis with monetary stimulus despite high inflationary pressures. Second, is the sharp dip in 2010 when the Fed took its foot off the gas pedal too soon after the financial crisis of 2008/2009, mistaking it for a regular recession.

Hourly earnings growth is currently at 2.5 percent, so the Fed has some wiggle room and is only likely to react with tighter monetary policy when the figure reaches 3.0 percent.

Recent rate rises are more about normalizing interest rates — not taming inflation — and are not cause for alarm.

But Paul Schmelzing warns that the combination of a tight labor market and fiscal stimulus could fuel inflation and lead to a bear market in bonds similar to the 1960s.

That is exactly where Donald Trump is headed with a major infrastructure program likely to hit the ground next year. In a tightening labor market, the Fed would be forced to tighten monetary policy, slowing the economy and leading to another bear market in stocks as well as bonds.

Politics is tricky; it cuts both ways. Every time you make a choice, it has unintended consequences.

~ Stone Gossard

Gold weakens as interest rates rise

Interest rates are climbing steeply as the market anticipates more inflationary policies under a Trump presidency. 10-Year Treasury yields broke through 2.0 percent and are testing resistance at 2.50. Penetration of the descending trendline would warn that the long-term primary down-trend is weakening, signaling a test of 3.0 percent. Breakout above 3.0 is still some way off but would signal the end of the almost 30-year secular down-trend in Treasury and bond yields.

10-Year Treasury Yields

The Chinese Yuan has fallen sharply in response to rising interest rates, with the Dollar headed for a test of resistance at 7.0 Yuan (USDCNY).


Gold responded to rising interest rate expectations with a test of primary support at $1200. Narrow consolidation is a bearish sign, as is reversal of 13-week Momentum below zero. Breach of primary support would signal a primary down-trend with an immediate target of $1050/ounce.

Spot Gold

In the long-term, higher inflation and a weakening Yuan could both fuel demand for gold as a store of value. But the medium-term outlook is bearish.

Rising inflation, Dollar weakens

The consumer price index (CPI) ticked up 1.14% (year-on-year) for April 2016, on the back of higher oil prices. Core CPI (excluding energy and food) eased slightly to 2.15%.

CPI and Core CPI

Inflation is muted, but a sharp rise in hourly manufacturing (production and nonsupervisory employees) earnings growth (2.98% for 12 months to April 2016) points to further increases.

Manufacturing Hourly Earnings Growth

Despite this, long-term interest rates remain weak, with 10-year Treasury yields testing support at 1.65 percent. Breach would signal another test of the record low at 1.50% in 2012. The dovish Fed is a contributing factor, but so could safe-haven demand from investors wary of stocks….

10-year Treasury Yields

The Dollar

The US Dollar Index rallied off long-term support at 93 but this looks more a pause in the primary down-trend (signaled by decline of 13-week Momentum below zero) than a reversal.

US Dollar Index

Explanation for the Dollar rally is evident on the chart of China’s foreign reserves: a pause in the sharp decline of the last 2 years. China has embarked on another massive stimulus program in an attempt to shock their economy out of its present slump.

China: Foreign Reserves

But this hair of the dog remedy is unlikely to solve their problems, merely postpone the inevitable reckoning. The Yuan is once again weakening against the Dollar. Decline in China’s reserves — and the US Dollar as a consequence — is likely to continue.

USD: Chinese Yuan

Will the RBA cut interest rates in May?

From Justin Smirk at Westpac:

The headline CPI surprised in Q1 falling 0.2% compared to Westpac’s forecast for +0.4%….. The annual rate is now just 1.3%yr compared to 1.7%yr in Q4.

The core measures, which are seasonally adjusted and exclude extreme moves, rose 0.2% compared to the market’s expectation of 0.5% rise…. The annual pace of the average of the core inflation measures is now 1.5% from 2.0% in Q4 (Q4 was unrevised) and is the lowest print we have yet seen from this measure.

From Jens Meyer at The Age:

Today’s weak inflation numbers are a game changer for the Reserve Bank that will trigger a rate cut, says JPMorgan head of fixed income and foreign exchange strategy Sally Auld.

The investment bank now expects the RBA to cut by 0.25 percentage points next week and to follow this up with a further 25 basis points cut in August, taking the cash rate to 1.50 per cent.

Smirk disagrees:

…..But low inflation, on its own, is not a trigger for a rate cut. Sure, it unlocks the interest rate door for the RBA should it decide it needs to walk through that door as the Bank would not have to wait for another CPI update before doing so. However, it does not mean that the RBA will cut rates! A rate cut is dependent on local economic conditions demanding a rate cut. With unemployment on a new downtrend this is not so at the moment and we suggest that the RBA is waiting to see a new weaker trend in domestic activity and employment before it would embark on such a strategy.

Source: Australian 14 CPI 2016 | Westpac

Source: Three reasons for the Reserve Bank of Australia to cut official interest rates in May

Gold breaks support

Gold fell to $1070/ounce, breaching the band of primary support between $1080 and $1100 per ounce. 13-Week Twiggs Momentum peaks below zero indicate a strong primary down-trend. The next level of support is $1000/ounce*.

Spot Gold

* Target calculation: 1100 – ( 1200 – 1100 ) = 1000


Core CPI is close to the Fed target of 2.0 percent but inflation expectations continue to fall, with the 5-year breakeven rate (5-year Treasury minus 5-year TIPS yield) as low as 1.2 percent.

5-Year Breakeven Rate

Interest Rates and the Dollar

Long-term interest rates are rising, anticipating a Fed rate hike. 10-Year Treasury yields retraced to test the new support level after breaking through 2.25 percent. Respect of support is likely and will signal an advance to 2.50 percent. Recovery of 13-week Twiggs Momentum above zero suggests an up-trend. Breakout above 2.50 percent would confirm.

10-Year Treasury Yields

Low inflation and a stronger Dollar are weakening demand for gold. The Dollar Index is testing resistance at 100. Respect of zero by 13-week Twiggs Momentum indicates long-term buying pressure. Breakout above 100 is likely and would signal an advance to 107*.

Dollar Index

* Target calculation: 100 + ( 100 – 93 ) = 107

Weak US retail sales belie strong fundamentals

Lucia Mutikani at Reuters writes:

U.S. retail sales barely rose in September and producer prices recorded their biggest decline in eight months, raising further doubts about whether the Federal Reserve will raise interest rates this year. The weak reports on Wednesday were the latest suggestion that the economy was losing momentum in the face of slowing global growth, a strong dollar, an inventory correction and lower oil prices that are hampering capital spending in the energy sector. Job growth braked sharply in the past two months.

Readers of the headline Weak U.S. retail sales, inflation data cloud rate hike outlook could be forgiven for believing the US economy is headed for recession. After all, retail sales growth has slowed to a crawl.

Retail Sales

And the producer price index is declining.

Producer Price Index

But if we strip out food and energy prices, PPI remains close to the Fed’s 2% inflation target. And low energy prices will eventually feed through as a stimulus.

Hourly earnings in the manufacturing sector are starting to grow.

Average Hourly Earnings Growth: Manufacturing and Total Private

“The overall message is that consumer spending has remained extremely strong. If sentiment had indeed shifted, it would be hard to explain why sales of cars, certainly among the more expensive items, jumped in September to their highest level since July 2005,” said Harm Bandholz, chief economist at UniCredit Research in New York.

Light vehicle sales continue their upward trajectory.

Light Vehicle Sales

And construction spending is decidedly bullish.

Construction Spending

Not much here to keep Janet Yellen up at nights. When it comes to rate rises, the sooner we get the economy back on a sound footing the better, I say. Otherwise we encourage further capital misallocation and dependency on Fed stimulus. There are no free lunches from central bankers. Everything comes at a price.

Gold and Treasury yields decline as inflation weakens

US inflation. Core CPI is hovering below 2.0 percent but the 5-year inflation breakeven (5-year Treasury yield minus TIPS yield) suggests that inflation will fall. The recent slow-down in average hourly manufacturing earnings growth (production and non-supervisory employees) may just be statistical noise, but decline of either of these signals below 1.0% p.a. would be cause for concern.

5 Year Inflation Breakeven

Treasury yields remain weak, with the 10-year yield testing support between 1.85 and 2.0 percent.

10-Year Treasury Yields

The Dollar Index continues to range between 93 and 98. Falling inflation would favor an upward breakout. But flight to safety could drive the Dollar up (and yields downward). The biggest factor that may the Dollar down (and yields up), however, would be a Chinese sell-off of foreign reserves (largely Treasury investments) — to support the Yuan and/or stimulate their economy.

Dollar Index

Spot gold is likely to test primary support between $1080 and $1100 per ounce. Declining 13-week Twiggs Momentum, with peaks below zero, signals a strong down-trend. Breach of primary support would offer a target of $1000/ounce*.

Spot Gold

* Target calculation: 1200 – ( 1400 – 1200 ) = 1000

RBA strategy: Fight fire with gasoline

This is just plain wrong.

Bulk Commodity Prices

The Australian economy is sitting atop an enormous housing bubble caused by credit expansion from 1995 to 2007. To counter the end of the mining boom, the RBA lowered interest rates to stimulate the economy. While this may be necessary to relieve pressure on borrowers, what we don’t need is another credit expansion. That would simply make the economy more unstable and increase the risk of a crash. Banks are moving to curb lending to speculators, with lower LVRs, but not fast enough in my view. We can’t afford a credit contraction, but the RBA needs to impose sufficient discipline to keep credit growth at/below the inflation rate — so that it gradually declines in real terms as the economy grows.

Inflation steady while Gold tests support

CPI continues below zero, but core CPI (excluding food and energy) came in at 1.81% for April 2015, indicating long-term inflationary pressures are constant.

CPI and Core CPI

Low inflation relieves upward pressure on bond yields. The yield on 10-year Treasury notes encountered resistance at 2.25%, with tall shadows on the last 3 weekly candles. Expect another retracement to test support at 1.85%. Reversal of 13-week Twiggs Momentum below zero would strengthen the signal.

10-Year Treasury Yields

* Target calculation: 2.25 + ( 2.25 – 1.85 ) = 2.65

The Dollar Index broke resistance at 96 despite falling bond yields, indicating the correction is over and another test of 100 likely. 13-Week Twiggs Momentum is declining, but recovery above the descending trendline would support the (bull) signal. Reversal below 96 is unlikely, but would test support at 93.

Dollar Index


The inflation-adjusted price of gold (gold/CPI) suggests that gold has further to fall. Unusually high levels of intervention by central banks in financial markets may, however, be fueling support at current prices — suggesting a gradual decline rather than a sharp adjustment.


Spot gold is headed for another test of medium-term support at $1180/ounce after respecting resistance at $1220. Breach of support would test the primary level at $1140. 13-Week Twiggs Momentum peaks below zero suggest a primary down-trend. Failure of $1140 would test the long-term target of $1000*.

Spot Gold

* Target calculation: 1200 – ( 1400 – 1200 ) = 1000

US GDP: Where is it headed?

I originally got this from Matt Busigin (I think). Average Hourly Earnings multiplied by Average Weekly Hours (Total Private: Nonfarm) gives a pretty good indication of where GDP is headed, well ahead of the BEA accounts.

Nominal GDP compared to Average Hourly Earnings of All Employees (Total Private) multiplied by Average Weekly Hours (Total Private Nonfarm)

Remember this is nominal GDP, so the latest (April 2015) figure of 4.38% would need to be adjusted for inflation. Inflation is somewhere between 0.5% and 1.75% depending on how you measure it. The GDP deflator looks like it will come in below 1.0% which would leave us with real GDP of at least 3.38% p.a.

GDP Price Deflator compared to Core CPI

Gold, inflation and the Dollar

The (5-year) inflation breakeven (Treasury yield – TIPS) recovered from the oil price fall to post 1.66% on May 8.

5-Year Inflation Breakeven

Growth in average hourly earnings (manufacturing – production and non-supervisory employees) also recovered to 1.49% at the end of April.

Average Hourly Earnings

The stronger inflation outlook lifted the yield on 10-year Treasury notes above resistance at 2.25%. Recovery of 13-week Twiggs Momentum above zero also signals an up-trend. Target for the breakout is 2.65%*. This is a bearish sign for bonds, but only breakout above long-term resistance at 3.00% would signal that the secular bull market is over.

10-Year Treasury Yields

* Target calculation: 2.25 + ( 2.25 – 1.85 ) = 2.65

The Dollar Index found support at 94 in response to rising yields. 13-Week Twiggs Momentum is declining, but recovery above 96 would suggest that the correction is over and another test of 100 likely. Otherwise, expect strong support at the primary trendline around 92.

Dollar Index


Gold is testing medium-term support at $1180/ounce. Breach would test the primary level at $1140. 13-Week Twiggs Momentum holding below zero suggests continuation of the primary down-trend. Failure of $1140 would test the long-term target of $1000*.

Spot Gold

* Target calculation: 1200 – ( 1400 – 1200 ) = 1000

Inflation outlook

March consumer price index (CPI) is due for release on Friday. Producer prices, released Tuesday, ticked upwards after a sharp December/January fall on the back of plunging crude oil prices.

PPI Finished Goods

Average hourly earnings growth (non-supervisory manufacturing jobs), however, retreated below 1.0%.

Average Hourly Earnings

CPI is likely to remain heavily affected by oil prices, but core CPI (excluding food and energy) is expected to remain close to the Fed’s target of 2.0%.

CPI and Core CPI

CPI unwinds as the Fed runs out of “patience”

From Seeking Alpha:

The euro fell to a fresh 12-year low on Wednesday, extending a broad decline just days after the ECB launched its €1T bond-buying program, while the dollar index soared to its highest in more than 11 years at 98.95, buoyed by expectations that the Fed could soon lift U.S. interest rates. Nearly all now believe the FOMC will remove the word “patient” from its policy statement after its March 17-18 meeting, opening the door for a rate increase in June.

Not so fast. US consumer price growth (annual % change) to end of January 2015 fell below zero.


Core CPI is slowing at a far gentler rate because it excludes energy prices (as well as food).

CPI Core

Wage pressures in the manufacturing sector are declining, despite solid job numbers, indicating there is still plenty of slack.

Manufacturing Hourly Earnings

With inflationary pressures easing, why the haste to raise interest rates? I believe that Janet Yellen will move when the time is right. And not before.

Crude still has further to fall

West Texas Crude has been falling since breaking support at $75/barrel, following through below $50/barrel. A test of 2009 lows at $30/barrel is likely unless there is major disruption to supply.

WTI Crude Monthly

When we adjust crude prices for inflation, they remain high by historical standards. Prior to the China boom of the early 2000s, the ratio of WTI Crude to CPI had seldom ventured above $20/barrel when measured in 1982-1984 dollars (shown as 0.2 on the chart below). After the dramatic fall of the last 3 months, the adjusted price at the end of December 2014 (in 1982-1984 dollars) is still $25.20/barrel (0.252 on the chart) — well above the former high.

WTI Crude adjusted for inflation

Surprising lack of inflation as unemployment falls | Bank of England

Sir Jon Cunliffe, Deputy Governor for Financial Stability at the Bank of England:

“The big surprise, therefore, for the [Monetary Policy Committee] … has been the extent to which employment has been able to grow without generating more inflationary pressure through higher pay increases. Understanding why that has happened and how long it will persist is, in my view, now key to deciding policy.”

One possible explanation may be a longer-than-usual lag between falls in unemployment and pay pressure emerging, which could mean that inflationary pressure is building in the pipeline that will be more difficult to curtail if the Bank does not act now. However, another is that a combination of factors has caused labour supply – the amount of hours of labour available to the economy – to be much stronger than in previous recoveries, for example due to the increase in women’s state pension age and changes to the incapacity benefits regime. And the fall in unemployment has included a high number of long-term unemployed, who probably act as less of a drag on pay.

Yet despite the biggest squeeze on real incomes for nearly a century, there appears to be little evidence that workers are demanding a catch-up in pay, Jon observes, possibly due to a shift in the psychology of UK workers resulting from the sharpness of the recession and the years of austerity that have followed it.

Read more at Bank of England | Publications | News Releases | News Release – Monetary policy one year on – speech by Sir Jon Cunliffe.

Strong Dollar weakens gold

  • Treasury yields decline
  • Dollar strengthens
  • Crude oil weakens
  • Gold hesitates

Interest Rates and the Dollar

The yield on ten-year Treasury Notes is testing support at 2.40 percent. Breach would confirm a primary decline with a target of 2.00 percent*. 13-Week Twiggs Momentum holding below zero strengthens the bear signal. Recovery above 2.50 is unlikely, but would suggest a rally to 2.65/2.70 percent.

10-Year Treasury Yields

* Target calculation: 2.50 – ( 3.00 – 2.50 ) = 2.00

The Dollar Index broke resistance at 81.50, signaling a long-term advance to 84*. Expect retracement to test the new support level. Recovery of 13-week Twiggs Momentum above zero also suggests a primary up-trend. Reversal below 81.00 is unlikely, but would warn of another test of support at 80.00.

Dollar Index

* Target calculation: 81.50 – ( 81.50 – 79.00 ) = 84.00

A rising dollar and falling treasury yields both suggest that inflation expectations are falling.


Gold found medium-term support at $1280/$1300, but oscillation of 13-week Twiggs Momentum around zero indicates hesitancy. Recovery above $1350 would indicate a primary up-trend, while breach of support at $1240/$1250 would signal a down-trend.

Spot Gold

* Target calculation: 1200 – ( 1400 – 1200 ) = 1000

Declining crude prices may also be contributing to lower inflation expectations and weaker gold demand as an inflation hedge. Brent Crude breach of $104/barrel would signal a primary down-trend, reducing the possibility of a sustained rise in the gold price.

Gold and Crude