East to West: Seoul and Footsie find support

A Twiggs Money Flow trough high above zero reflects strong buying support on the Seoul Composite Index. Breach of support at 2300 is unlikely but would signal a primary down-trend.

Seoul Composite Index

Japan’s Nikkei 225 Index broke resistance at 20200, signaling another advance.

Nikkei 225 Index

Hong Kong’s Hang Seng Index has been in a strong bull market since breaking resistance at 24000 early this year.

Hang Seng Index

India’s NSE Nifty Index displays strong buying pressure, with Twiggs Money Flow oscillating above the zero line. Breakout above resistance at 10000/10100 is likely and would signal another advance.

Nifty Index

Target 10000 + ( 10000 – 9000 ) = 11000

Moving to Europe, Dow Jones Euro Stoxx 50 is headed for a test of resistance at 3650. A big Twiggs Money Flow trough above zero signals buying pressure. Breakout is likely and would offer a target of 3900*.

DJ Euro Stoxx 50

* Target calculation: 3650 + ( 3650 – 3400 ) = 3900

The UK’s Footsie is rallying strongly after a bear trap at 7300. Often the strongest bull signals start with a bear trap or false break through support. breakout above 7550 would offer a target of 7900*.

FTSE 100

* Target calculation: 7550 + ( 7550 – 7200 ) = 7900

Canada’s TSX 60 continues to consolidate below its former primary support level at 900. Beset by a massive property bubble, with soaring household debt, and weak crude oil prices the index displays a similar pattern to the ASX 200. Declining Twiggs Money Flow warns of selling pressure. Breach of support at 880 would confirm the primary down-trend.

TSX 60

East to West: Seoul selling pressure

Declining peaks on Twiggs Trend Index and a tall shadow on this week’s candle warn of selling pressure on the Seoul Composite Index. Breach of support at 2300 would signal a primary down-trend.

Seoul Composite Index

Most other exchanges remain bullish, with Japan’s Nikkei 225 Index breaking resistance at 20200. Expect retracement to test the new support level. Respect would signal a fresh advance.

Nikkei 225 Index

China’s Shanghai Composite Index is retracing to test its new support level at 3300. Declining peaks on the Trend Index warn of medium-term selling pressure. Respect of support would confirm a primary advance.

Shanghai Composite Index

India’s NSE Nifty Index respected resistance at 10000/10100 and declining peaks on Twiggs Trend Index warn of medium-term selling pressure. Follow-through below the rising trendline would warn of a correction.

Nifty Index

Target 10000 + ( 10000 – 9000 ) = 11000

Moving to Europe, Germany’s DAX consolidated ahead of the elections. The Trend Index trough at zero indicates buying pressure and a test of 13000 is likely.

DJ Euro Stoxx 600

The UK’s Footsie retraced to test its new resistance level at 7300. Respect would confirm a primary down-trend. Declining Twiggs Trend Index peaks, especially below zero, signal selling pressure. Follow-through below 7100 would strengthen the bear signal.

FTSE 100

Canada’s TSX 60 continues to consolidate below its former primary support level at 900. Declining Trend Index warns of selling pressure. Breach of medium-term support at 880 would confirm the primary down-trend.

TSX 60

East to West

First, the canary in the coal mine, the Seoul Composite Index, found support at 2300. Follow-through above 2400 would be a bullish sign, suggesting a fresh advance.

Seoul Composite Index

Japan’s Nikkei 225 Index found support despite ICBMs flying overhead, rallying to test resistance at 20000. Recovery above 20000 is likely and would signal a fresh advance.

Nikkei 225 Index

China’s Shanghai Composite Index is retracing to test its new support level at 3300. Respect is likely and would confirm a fresh advance.

Shanghai Composite Index

India’s NSE Nifty Index is testing resistance at 10000/10100. Twiggs Trend Index oscillating above zero signals long-term buying pressure. Breakout is likely and would indicate a fresh advance with a long-term target of 11000*.

Nifty Index

Target 10000 + ( 10000 – 9000 ) = 11000

Moving to Europe, Germany’s DAX rallied off support at 12000, suggesting a fresh advance. Recovery of the Trend Index above zero is bullish. Breakout above 13000 would signal another primary advance.

DJ Euro Stoxx 600

The UK’s Footsie, however, broke support at 7300 on the back of BREXIT worries, warning of a primary down-trend. Twiggs Trend Index peaks below zero signal selling pressure. Follow-through below 7100 would confirm a bear market.

FTSE 100

In Canada, the TSX 60 continues to consolidate below its former primary support level at 900. A declining Trend Index warns of selling pressure. Breach of medium-term support at 880 would confirm a primary down-trend.

TSX 60

Asian stocks rally, Europe follows

Asian stocks have started to rally and Europe is likely to follow. Canada faces stronger headwinds and is expected to struggle to break resistance at 900.

Starting near Korean epicenter of political tensions, the Seoul Composite Index remains bullish. Though breach of the rising trendline could change matters in an instant. No hint of panic selling….yet.

Seoul Composite Index

China’s Shanghai Composite Index finally broke through resistance at 3300, offering a target of 3500. The Trend Index oscillating above zero indicates long-term buying pressure.

Shanghai Composite Index

Japan’s Nikkei 225 Index encountered strong resistance at 20000 but a rounding top is a bullish sign. Recovery above 20000 is likely and would signal a fresh advance.

Nikkei 225 Index

India’s NSE Nifty Index is testing resistance at 10000. Twiggs Trend Index oscillating above zero signals long-term buying pressure. Breakout is likely and would indicate a fresh advance with a long-term target of 11000*.

Nifty Index

Target 10000 + ( 10000 – 9000 ) = 11000

In Europe, the UK’s Footsie, beset with BREXIT issues, still managed to respect support at 7300, avoiding a primary down-trend. Another test of 7600 is likely but breakout and another primary advance appear remote given the loss of momentum and selling pressure signaled by the declining Trend Index.

FTSE 100

Dow Jones Euro Stoxx 600 found support at the rising trendline, around 370. Recovery of the Trend Index above zero is likely. Follow-through above 380 would suggest another primary advance.

DJ Euro Stoxx 600

Moving to North America, Canada’s TSX 60 continues to consolidate in a narrow line below the former primary support level at 900. Declining Trend Index warns of long-term selling pressure. Breach of support at 880 is likely and would confirm a primary down-trend.

TSX 60

Global correction

Global stock markets have mostly experienced selling pressure over the last two weeks but most of the activity is secondary in nature and, apart from longer-term issues in the UK and Canada, is unlikely to affect the primary up-trend.

Starting near the North Korean epicenter of the latest tensions, the Seoul Composite Index is largely unfazed. The monthly chart reflects a secondary correction with moderate selling pressure and no hint of panic selling.

Seoul Composite Index

China’s Shanghai Composite Index rallied after a modest correction.

Shanghai Composite Index

While bearish divergence on Hong Kong’s Hang Seng Index warns of selling pressure and a secondary correction to test 26000.

Hang Seng Index

India’s Sensex is undergoing a correction after breaking its rising trendline but found support at 31000.

BSE Sensex

Moving farther afield, Canada’s TSX 60 continues to consolidate in a narrow line below the former primary support level at 900. Declining Twiggs Money Flow warns of long-term selling pressure. Breach of support at 880 is likely and would confirm a primary down-trend.

TSX 60

Europe also experienced selling pressure, with the Footsie testing primary support at 7300. Breach of support would signal a primary down-trend.

FTSE 100

Germany’s Dax found support at 12000. Respect, with a Twiggs Money Flow trough above zero, would indicate another primary advance.

DJ Euro Stoxx 50

Tillerson: Not many good North Korea options | Reuters

From Reuters:

U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson said on Friday there would not be many good options left on North Korea if the peaceful pressure campaign the United States has been pushing to curb Pyongyang’s nuclear and missile programs failed….

The United States, Japan and South Korea agreed on Friday to push for a quick U.N. Security Council resolution to apply new sanctions on North Korea. U.N. diplomats said the United States had given China a draft sanctions resolution.

But Washington faces an uphill struggle to convince Russia and China to give quick backing to new U.N. sanctions.

Experts say North Korea’s ICBM launch on Tuesday was a major step forward in its declared intent to create nuclear-tipped missiles capable of hitting the United States. Some U.S. experts say the missile appeared to have the range to hit Alaska, Hawaii and parts of the U.S. Pacific Northwest.

Washington has warned it is ready to use force if need be to stop North Korea’s weapons programs but the consequences of that could be catastrophic and it prefers global diplomatic action.

Source: Not many good North Korea options if pressure fails: Tillerson | Reuters

Is the Donald long gold?

Don’t know if he is long, but Donald Trump is doing his best to drive up demand for gold.

From the FT overnight:

Donald Trump has warned that the US will take unilateral action to eliminate the nuclear threat from North Korea unless China increases pressure on the regime in Pyongyang.

In an interview with the Financial Times, the US president said he would discuss the growing threat from Kim Jong Un’s nuclear programme with Xi Jinping when he hosts the Chinese president at his Florida resort this week, in their first meeting. “China has great influence over North Korea. And China will either decide to help us with North Korea, or they won’t,” Mr Trump said in the Oval Office.

“If they do, that will be very good for China, and if they don’t, it won’t be good for anyone.”

But he made clear that he would deal with North Korea with or without China’s help. Asked if he would consider a “grand bargain” — where China pressures Pyongyang in exchange for a guarantee that the US would later remove troops from the Korean peninsula — Mr Trump said:

“Well if China is not going to solve North Korea, we will. That is all I am telling you.”

Nothing like the threat of nuclear war to drive up the price of portable assets. Not that it would do much good if you are on the receiving end.

Spot Gold broke resistance at $1250 an ounce. Follow-through above $1260 is likely and would signal an advance to $1300.

Spot Gold

Theresa May had a calmer, less belligerent approach: “….encourage China to look at this issue of North Korea and play a more significant role in terms of North Korea … I think that’s where our attention should focus.”

The Chip on China’s Shoulder | WSJ

…..Fully 70% of Chinese television dramas have plots related to war with Japan, he tells us, and in 2012 alone 700 million imaginary Japanese were killed in Chinese movies. Mr. French’s findings on this count are ominous: “Up until the present day,” he writes, “East Asia has never proven large enough for two great powers to coexist peacefully.”

….he points to the enormous demographic shift under way in China as the population ages and birthrates fall far short of replacement. China is on course to have more than 329 million people over the age of 65 by 2050, while the younger, working-age population is set to plummet. The inexorable aging of the population will, Mr. French predicts, restrain the country’s ability to project power in the future. It will halve the size of the military-age population while saddling workers and the government with enormous expenses to care for the elderly. He suggests that the incredible pace with which China is currently trying to assert control over the South China Sea is driven by President Xi Jinping’s awareness that the country has a window of at most 20 or 30 years before demographics catch up to it and such an expansion becomes impossible.

China’s attempt to dominate East Asia (if not Asia) brings it into direct conflict with Japan. Expect increased militarization of Japan as China attempts to expand its sphere of influence. The Korean peninsula and Vietnam are simply sideshows.

Source: The Chip on China’s Shoulder – WSJ

Don’t Believe the Hype: China’s North Korea Policy is All Smoke and Mirrors

Dr. Van Jackson is an Associate Professor at the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, and author of the book Rival Reputations: Coercion and Credibility in US-North Korea Relations:

Social media is abuzz with news that China’s Ministry of Commerce announced it will suspend coal imports from North Korea as part of U.N. Security Council sanctions enforcement for the North’s most recent nuclear and ballistic missile tests in violation of prior Security Council resolutions. So China is finally standing arm-in-arm with the United States and international community to actually do something about North Korea. That’s great, right? Wrong.

China’s suspension of coal imports is smoke and mirrors; an act of geopolitical misdirection. The United States is being played, as it has in the numerous past instances when China supported sanctions resolutions against North Korea at the United Nations only to fail to implement them….

….China’s “emotions” toward North Korea don’t drive its policy. China has a long tradition of paying lip service toward cooperation with the United States and the international community while largely failing to apply any meaningful pressure on North Korea, and for good reason: It doesn’t want a nuclear-armed neighbor on its border to become a nuclear-armed enemy. We ignore China’s enduring strategic interests in North Korea at our peril.

Source: Don’t Believe the Hype: China’s North Korea Policy is All Smoke and Mirrors

Asia: Japan surges while China ebbs

Japan is surging ahead, with the Nikkei 225 index headed for a test of 20000* after its breakout above 17500 four weeks ago.

Nikkei 225 Index

* Target medium-term: 17500 + ( 17500 – 15000 ) = 20000

India’s Sensex found support at 26000, but narrow consolidation and declining Twiggs Money Flow both warn of selling pressure. Breach of 26000 would indicate another decline, with a target of 23000*.

Sensex Index

* Target medium-term: 26000 – ( 29000 – 26000 ) = 23000

Shanghai Composite Index is undergoing another correction. Respect of support at 3100 would indicate a healthy up-trend, while breach of 3000 would warn of a reversal. Declining Twiggs Money Flow indicates medium-term selling pressure.

Shanghai Composite Index

* Target medium-term: 3100 + ( 3100 – 2800 ) = 3400

Sharply falling Money Flow warns of strong selling pressure on Hong Kong’s Hang Seng Index. Breach of support at 22000 would signal a primary down-trend with an initial decline to 20000.

Hang Seng Index

Japan & China rally

Japan’s Nikkei 225 Index broke resistance at 17500 while rising Money Flow indicates buying pressure. Target for the rally is the November 2015 high of 20000*.

Nikkei 225 Index

* Target medium-term: 17500 + ( 17500 – 15000 ) = 20000

Shanghai Composite Index followed through after a brief consolidation at 3200, offering a target of 3400*. Expect retracement to test the new support level at 3100 but rising Money Flow suggests respect is likely.

Shanghai Composite Index

* Target medium-term: 3100 + ( 3100 – 2800 ) = 3400

Asia steadies

China’s Shanghai Composite Index steadied and is again testing resistance at 3100. Breakout would signal a primary up-trend. Rising troughs on Twiggs Money Flow indicate buying pressure.

Shanghai Composite Index

Japan’s Nikkei 225 Index rallied for another test of resistance at 17000. Breakout above 17000 would suggest a primary up-trend. Follow-through above 17600, completing a broad double-bottom, would confirm. Further consolidation, however, is more likely.

Nikkei 225 Index

India’s BSE Sensex broke out of its narrow rectangle at 28000, signaling another advance. Expect a test of the 2015 high at 30000. Bearish divergence on Twiggs Money Flow now appears misleading.

SENSEX

Asia pulls back

China’s Shanghai Composite Index retreated below resistance at 3100. Prospects of a primary up-trend have dimmed and further consolidation between 2800 and 3100 is likely.

Shanghai Composite Index

Japan’s Nikkei 225 Index is pretty directionless, retreating from resistance at 17000. Breach of 16000 would warn of another test of primary support at 15000. But a broad base between 15000 and 17000 is likely.

Nikkei 225 Index

India’s BSE Sensex is the most promising, consolidating in a bullish narrow range around 28000. Upward breakout would signal a further advance towards the 2015 high of 30000. Bearish divergence on Twiggs Money Flow warns of long-term selling pressure, however, and downward breakout would warn of a correction to 25000 or 26000.

SENSEX

Hope isn’t a strategy

Cautious optimism has evaporated after poor recent polls favoring a BREXIT. I hope that sanity prevails but, as the saying goes: “Hope isn’t a strategy”.

Better to have a Plan A and a Plan B to cope with the two alternatives. But if enough investors decide their money is safer in the bank, then expectations of a fall are likely to become a self-fulfilling prophecy.

The S&P 500 does not appear unduly alarmed but a sharp fall on 13-week Money Flow warns of selling pressure. Reversal below 2000 would warn of another test of primary support (1820 to 1870).

S&P 500 Index

Dow Jones Industrial Average shows a similar picture. Breach of medium-term support at 17400 to 17500 would warn of another test of primary support at 15500 to 16000.

Dow Jones Industrial Average

A CBOE Volatility Index (VIX) spiked to 20, indicating increased market risk. Long-term measures remain unaffected.

S&P 500 VIX

Europe

Germany’s DAX retreated below medium-term support, warning of another test of primary support. 13-Week Money Flow below zero suggests a primary down-trend.

DAX

The Footsie broke support at 6000 warning of a test of 5500. Reversal of Money Flow below zero would suggest a primary down-trend.

FTSE 100

* Target calculation: 6400 + ( 6400 – 6000 ) = 6800

Asia

The Shanghai Composite Index continues to range between 2700 and 3100.

Shanghai Composite Index

Japan’s Nikkei 225 Index broke support at 16000 and its lower trend channel, warning of another decline.

Nikkei 225 Index

* Target calculation: 15000 – ( 18000 – 15000 ) = 12000

India’s Sensex remains bullish, with a short retracement below 27000. Bearish divergence on 13-week Money Flow would end if the descending trendline is penetrated.

SENSEX

Australia

The ASX 200 broke medium-term support at 5200, warning of another test of primary support at 4750. Expect support at the former level of 4900 to 5000 but it is questionable whether this will hold. Combination of a seasonal sell-off and BREXIT fears are going to test buyers’ commitment.

ASX 200

The Banks Index fell sharply and breach of support at 7200 would offer a target of 6400*.

ASX 300 Banks

* Target calculation: 7200 – ( 8000 – 7200 ) = 6400

Health Care is experiencing a strong sell-off, led by CSL. This is a good long-term stock but exposure to the UK/Europe has spooked the market.

ASX 200 Health Care

Asia: Shanghai weakens

The Shanghai Composite Index broke medium-term support at 2900, warning of another test of primary support at 2700. Reversal of Money Flow below zero would warn of a decline to 2400*.

Shanghai Composite Index

* Target calculation: 3000 – ( 3600 – 3000 ) = 2400

Japan’s Nikkei 225 Index is edging higher but trend strength is weak. Breakout above resistance at 17000 was followed by a retreat to 16000. Support is weak and breach of 16000 would signal another test of primary support at 15000.

Nikkei 225 Index

* Target calculation: 17000 – ( 20000 – 17500 ) = 15000

India’s Sensex is more bullish, testing its upper trend channel at 26000. Short retracement is a bullish sign and breakout above 26000 would signal that the down-trend is ending. Recovery of 13-week Twiggs Momentum above zero would strengthen the signal.

SENSEX

* Target calculation: 23000 – ( 25000 – 23000 ) = 21000

The titillating and terrifying collapse of the dollar. Again. | Michael Pettis

Michael Pettis explains why the US dollar as reserve currency is a burden rather than a privilege for the US:

Historically, neither Europe nor Japan, and certainly not China, have been willing to permit foreigners to purchase significant amounts of government bonds for reserve purposes. When the PBoC tried to accumulate yen three years ago, for example, rather than welcome the friendly Chinese gesture granting the Bank of Japan some of the exorbitant privilege enjoyed by the Fed, the Japanese government demanded that the PBoC stop buying. The reason is because PBoC buying would force up the value of the yen by just enough to reduce Japan’s current account surplus by an amount exactly equal to PBoC purchases. This, after all, is the way the balance of payments works: it must balance.

What is more, because the current account surplus is by definition equal to the excess of Japanese savings over Japanese investment, the gap would have to narrow by an amount exactly equal to PBoC purchases. Here is where the exorbitant privilege collapses. If Japan needs foreign capital because it has many productive investments at home that it cannot finance for lack of access to savings, it would welcome Chinese purchases. PBoC purchases of yen bonds would indirectly cause productive Japanese investment to rise by exactly the amount of the PBoC purchase, and because the current account surplus is equal to the excess of savings over investment, the reduction in Japan’s current account surplus would occur in the form of higher productive investment at home. Both China and Japan would be better off in that case.But like other advanced economies Japan does not need foreign capital to fund productive domestic investment projects. These can easily be funded anyway. In that case PBoC purchases of yen bonds must cause Japanese savings to decline, so that its current account surplus can decline (if the gap between savings and investment must decline, and investment does not rise, then savings must decline). There are only two ways Japanese savings can decline: first, the Japanese debt burden can rise, which Tokyo clearly doesn’t want, and second, Japanese unemployment can rise, which Tokyo even more clearly doesn’t want.

There is no way, in short, that Japan can benefit from PBoC purchases of its yen bonds, which is why Japan has always opposed substantial purchases by foreign central banks. It is why European countries also strongly opposed the same thing before the euro was created, and it is why China restricts foreign inflows, except in the past year when it has been overwhelmed by capital outflows. The US and, to a lesser extent, the UK, are the only countries that permit unlimited purchases of their government bonds by foreign central banks, but the calculus is no different.

It turns out that foreign investment is only good for an economy if it brings needed technological or managerial innovation, or if the recipient country has productive investment needs that cannot otherwise be funded. If neither of these two conditions hold, foreign investment must always lead either to a higher debt burden or to higher unemployment. Put differently, foreign investment must result in some combination of only three things: higher productive investment, a higher debt burden, or higher unemployment, and if it does not cause a rise in productive investment, it must cause one of the other two.

The two conditions under which foreign investment is positive for the economy – i.e. it leads to higher productive investment – are conditions that characterize developing economies only, and not advanced countries like Japan and the US. These conditions also do not characterize developing countries that have forced up their domestic savings rates to levels that exceed domestic investment, like China.

Source: The titillating and terrifying collapse of the dollar. Again. | Michael Pettis’ CHINA FINANCIAL MARKETS

Plenty of bottom signals

Global

Dow Jones Global Index is headed for a test of resistance at 320 after penetrating its descending trendline. Respect of 320 is likely but a bottom is forming and a higher trough would suggest an inverted head-and-shoulders formation. 13-Week Twiggs Momentum recovery above zero is bullish but another low peak would indicate that bears still dominate.

Dow Jones Global Index

North America

The S&P 500 continues to test the band of resistance at 2100 to 2130. Money Flow remains bullish but I expect stubborn resistance at this level, further strengthened by poor quarterly results, so far, in the earnings season.

S&P 500 Index

A CBOE Volatility Index (VIX) at a low 14 indicates that (short-term) market risk is low. Long-term measures are also starting to ease but we maintain high cash levels in our portfolios.

S&P 500 VIX

Canada’s TSX 60 is headed for a test of resistance at 825. Penetration of the descending trendline suggests that a bottom is forming. Resistance is likely to hold but an ensuing higher trough would be a bullish sign. Rising 13-week Twiggs Momentum is encouraging but a low peak above zero would indicate that bears still dominate.

TSX 60 Index

Europe

Germany’s DAX broke resistance at 10000 and is headed for a test of the descending trendline. Rising Money Flow indicates medium-term buying pressure. Retreat below 10000 would warn of another decline.

DAX

* Target calculation: 9500 – ( 11000 – 9500 ) = 8000

The Footsie is headed for a test of 6500. Rising Money Flow suggests decent buying pressure. Respect of resistance is likely but a bottom is forming and an ensuing higher trough would suggest a primary up-trend.

FTSE 100

* Target calculation: 6000 – ( 6500 – 6000 ) = 5500

Asia

The Shanghai Composite Index retreated below 3000. Breach of medium-term support at 2900 would warn of another test of primary support at 2700. Rising Money Flow suggests that breach of primary support is unlikely.

Shanghai Composite Index

* Target calculation: 3000 – ( 3600 – 3000 ) = 2400

Japan’s Nikkei 225 Index broke resistance at 17000, a higher trough signaling a primary up-trend. Expect retracement to test the new support level at 17000. Rising Money Flow confirms buying pressure.

Nikkei 225 Index

* Target calculation: 17000 – ( 20000 – 17500 ) = 15000

India’s Sensex is testing its upper trend channel at 26000. Penetration of the descending trendline would suggest that a bottom is forming. Respect, indicated by reversal below 25000, would warn of another test of primary support.

SENSEX

* Target calculation: 23000 – ( 25000 – 23000 ) = 21000

Australia

A sharp fall in the Australian Dollar as result of record low inflation numbers may precipitate some selling by international buyers. Further weakness in iron ore would impact both the ASX and the Aussie Dollar.

The ASX 200 has also penetrated its descending trendline, suggesting that a bottom is forming. But bearish divergence on 13-week Money Flow warns of selling pressure. Retreat below 5000 would warn of another test of primary support at 4700.

ASX 200

* Target calculation: 4700 – ( 5200 – 4700 ) = 4200

China’s problems

China’s problems in a nutshell, From Niels C. Jensen’s Absolute Return newsletter:

China’s problems….. It is faced with a decapitated banking industry, which has been far too willing to lend to all kinds of investment projects – good and bad. At the same time, the Chinese growth model has been driven by investments and exports, whereas the growth in consumer spending has been relatively modest. A few numbers to support that statement: As recently as 10 years ago, exports and investments constituted 34% and 42% respectively of Chinese GDP, i.e. less than a ¼ of Chinese GDP came from the combination of consumer spending and government spending. By comparison, consumer spending accounts for over 70% of U.S. GDP.

By 2014, investments had grown to 46% of GDP, whilst exports had fallen to 23%. The further growth in investments has been funded by rapid credit expansion in China’s banking industry, which has grown from $3 trillion in 2006 to $34 trillion in 2015. That is a shocking amount of credit in a $10 trillion economy. Now, the Chinese leadership face a big challenge. They must restructure the banking industry whilst at the same time seek to change the growth model. I can think of quite a few things that can go wrong in that process…..

The outcome is likely to be similar to Japan in the 1990s: zombie banks.
From FT lexicon:

Beginning in 1990, Japan suffered a collapse in real estate and stock market prices that pushed major banks into insolvency. Rather than follow America’s tough recommendation – and close or recapitalise these banks – Japan kept banks marginally functional through explicit or implicit guarantees and piecemeal government bail-outs. The resulting “zombie banks” – neither alive nor dead – could not support economic growth.

A period of weak economic performance called Japan’s “lost decade” resulted. Scores of companies were cast into an “undead” state – in the sense of being too weak to flourish, but too complex and costly for their lenders to shut down. Hence they remained half-alive, poisoning the corporate world by silently spreading a sense of stagnation and fear.